I‘d say volterra kernels are rather a multidimensional convolution. Main benefit is that it can do nonlinear. Kemper amp seems to use it as well. I think. It is easier to grasp when coming from a parametric model. Google has stuff on this, but you need to really want to chew through the math (which is quite convoluted).boji said:Makes me wonder about the emulation method used in Nebula plugins. Are "Vectorial Volterra Kernels" arrayed IR's?